From BCMpedia. A Wiki Glossary for Business Continuity Management (BCM) and Disaster Recovery (DR).
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1. Backup is the practice of copying a file onto a disk or tape using a utility. This is done for protection in case the active disk file gets damaged.

Related Terms: Data Backups, Electronic Vaulting, Cloud Backup, Database Backup, Remote Backup, Local Backup.
Notes (1): This is classified as one of the Data Recovery Strategy.

BCMBoK Competency Level
BCMBoK 4: Business Continuity Strategy CL 2B: Intermediate (BC)

BCMBoK Competency Level
BCMBoK 4: Business Continuity Strategy CL 2D: Intermediate (DR)

(Source: Business Continuity Management Institute - BCM Institute)

2. A process by which data, electronic or paper-based, is copied in some form so as to be available and used if the original data from which it originated is lost, destroyed or corrupted.

(Source: Business Continuity Institute - BCI)

3. Backup refers to making copies of data so that these additional copies may be used to restore the original after a data loss event.

These additional copies are typically called, "backups." Backups are useful primarily for two purposes; (a) to restore a state following a disaster (called disaster recovery) (b) to restore small numbers of files after they have been accidentally deleted or corrupted. Backups are typically that last line of defense against data loss, and consequently the least granular and the least convenient to use.

Source: Wikipedia